Skin pigmentation is a disorder that affects the color balance of the skin cells affected by melanin production. Once damaged or considered as unhealthy, skin cells can under or make too many amounts of Melanin. Darkness or lightness of the skin’s color is reliant on the amount of Melanin created by the skin cells. Having no stable color pigment produced, various skin spots of different shades tend to appear unevenly on the skin. Overproduction of Melanin can cause darker skin spots and the under production of it produce lighter spots.
Natural causes like pregnancy, self inflicted cases like no ample sun protection to diseases such as Addison’s disease are the most common causes of skin pigmentation. There are many forms of skin pigmentation conditions and the most common ones are Melasma, Solar Lentigo and Vitiligo. Cases can range from Epidermal and Dermal conditions. Epidermal is a classification where only the external skin layer is affected by skin pigmentation. Dermal on the other hand is a classification where the discoloration goes deeper into the skin tissue.
Dark spots commonly found on the face would be categorized as a condition known as Melasma. Common known causes of melasma would be excessive sun exposure and pregnancy. Remedies for Melasma are usually through the application of topical chemical peels for subtle cases while more elevated cases may undergo diamond peels and even laser treatments.
Age, liver or sun spots are usually noted by most as a natural skin condition but these are actually classified as a form of skin pigmentation medically known as Solar Lentigo. Solar Lentigo is basically due to overexposure to the sun without the right protection. Solar Lentigo is normal for those over the age of 50. This condition, though it may look normal, would need to be treated with more advanced measures like cryosurgery and laser.
Very little Melanin creation leads to lighter patches on the skin which is a skin ailment termed as Vitiligo. More advanced cases can lead to intensified whitening of patches covering various areas in the skin, which will be the complete opposite of the natural skin color. Those that have darker skin tones are most likely to acquire this kind of skin condition. There is still no actual known cause determined by experts on this type of skin condition. There are many cases that may be the reason for this type of skin pigmentation such as sun burns, genetic and hereditary cases, immunologic and even neurogenic factors.
For all known causes of skin pigmentation, the most frequent factor would be because of sun exposure. Without the proper amount of sun protection, skin cells are most likely to be ruined. Sun screens with high SPF formulation are the best sun protection recommended.